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549755814400. Pepin (Pippin) III "The Short", King Of The Franks King Of Franks Duke Of Austrasia , son of Charles "Martel" Of The Franks Martel [Mayor Of The Palace] and Chrotrudis (Rotrou/Rotrude) De Alemania Dss Of Austrasia [Duchesaustrasia, was born in 714 in Austrasia died on 24 Sep 768 in St. Denis, Paris, Seine, France, at age 54, and was buried in Basilica Of St. Denis, Paris, Seine, France.

General Notes: Pepin was Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia during the reign of Childeric III (743-752; the last of the Merovingian dynasty), and king of the Franks. In 751, Pepin deposed Childeric and thus became the first King of the Carolingian dynasty. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II (III) in 754. When the pope was threatened by the Lombards of northern Italy, Pepin led an army that defeated them (754-755). He ceded to the pope territory that included Ravenna and other cities. This grant, called the Donation of Pepin, laid the foundation for the Papal States. Pepin enlarged his own kingdom by capturing Aquitaine, or Aquitania, in southwestern France. He was succeeded by his sons Carloman and Charlemagne as joint kings. (Internet)

He succeeded his father in Neustria, the western part of the kingdom, while his brother, Carloman, held the eastern part. They both kept the time of mayor of the palace, and were the actual rulers of the country. They appointed Childeric III, probably a Merovingian, as king, but presided over tribunals, convoked councils of the church, and made war themselves. Carloman abdicated and retired to a monastery in 747. Pepin was thus sole master of both Austrasia and Neustria, and after consulting Pope Zacharias took the title of king. He was crowned by St. Boniface in 751 and later was recrowned by Pope Stephen II, who also made him a Patrician of Rome. In return for these favors Pepin made two expeditions against the Lombards. He took the exarchate of Ravenna from them and conferred it on the Pope. This marked the beginning of the Papal States. After an eight year war he occupied Aquitaine.
Pepin 'The Short', King Of The Franks founded the Carolingian dynasty. Like his father, grandfather, and great-great-grandfather, Pepin served as mayor of the palace in the Merovingian kingdom in France and Germany. In each case, the mayor was the power behind the throne. In 751, an assembly of the Franks deposed Childeric, the last of the weak Merovingian kings, and proclaimed Pepin king. Pope Stephen II, who ruled Rome, asked Pepin for help against the Lombard king, Pepin sent his army to save Rome. The Lombards had captured Ravenna. Pepin recaptured the city and much of the nearby territory, known as 'the Donation of Pepin,' helped build the political power of the pope. Pepin added Aquitaine to his own kingdom, and began many important religious and educational reforms. His son Charlemagne, carried on these reforms.

Source: 'The World Book Encyclopedia', 1968, P245 'Royalty for Commoners', Roderick W. Stuart, 1993, p 129.
'Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists ...', Frederick Lewis Weis, 1993, p cvi.



Pepin the Short (circa 714-68), mayor of the palace of Austrasia and king of the Franks (751-68), the son of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel, and the grandson of Pepin of Herstal. He was mayor of the palace during the reign of Childeric III (reigned about 743-52), the last of the Merovingian dynasty. In 751, Pepin deposed Childeric and thus became the first king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II (III) in 754. When the pope was threatened by the Lombards of northern Italy, Pepin led an army that defeated them (754-55). He ceded to the pope territory that included Ravenna and other cities. This grant, called the Donation of Pepin, laid the foundation for the Papal States. Pepin enlarged his own kingdom by capturing Aquitaine, or Aquitania, in southwestern France. He was succeeded by his sons Carloman (751-71) and Charlemagne as joint kings. He was also mayor of the palace of Austrasia. He was mayor of the palace during the reign of Childeric III (reigned about 743-52), the last of the Merovingian dynasty. In 751, Pepin deposed Childeric and thus became the first king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II (III) in 754. When the pope was threatened by the Lombards of northern Italy, Pepin led an army that defeated them (754-55). He ceded to the pope territory that included Ravenna and other cities. This grant, called the Donation of Pepin, laid the foundation for the Papal States. Pepin enlarged his own kingdom by capturing Aquitaine, or Aquitania, in southwestern France. He was succeeded by his sons Carloman and Charlemagne as joint kings. Merged General Note: He was also mayor of the palace of Austrasia. He was mayor of the palace during the reign of Childeric III (reigned about 743-52), the last of the Merovingian dynasty. In 751, Pepin deposed Childeric and thus became the first king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II (III) in 754. When the pope was threatened by the Lombards of northern Italy, Pepin led an army that defeated them (754-55). He ceded to the pope territory that included Ravenna and other cities. This grant, called the Donation of Pepin, laid the foundation for the Papal States. Pepin enlarged his own kingdom by capturing Aquitaine, or Aquitania, in southwestern France. He was succeeded by his sons Carloman and Charlemagne as joint kings.




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Originally the Mayor of the Palace for King Childeric III. IN 751 an
assembly of nobles in Soissons elected him king of the Franks. In 754 Pope
Stephan II crowned Pepin, King of France at the abbey of St. Denis,
outside of Paris. He supported the Church and rescued the papacy from the
Lombard Kings giving the Pope central Italy in the Donation of Pepin in
756.

27. Pepin (Pippin) II., the Short, King of France from 752 to 768, born in
714, died in 768. He had much to do; the Saxons, Bavarians, and Arabs were
all menacing or revolting, and he had to rush from one part of the kingdom
to the other, defending its frontiers, and getting no help from the
"stupid sluggard king," at Paris. At last, impatient of the farce, he sent
this question to the Pope: "Who is king, he who governs or he who wears
the crown?" "He who governs, of course," answered the Pope. "That is
myself," said the little man with a great will; "so the sluggards shall go
to sleep forever," and he sent the last of them, Childeric III., the last
of the Merovingians, into a monastery. Then the nobles put their shields
together, and the little man was seated on a chair, on their shields, and
with him thus, "shouting and raising their shields as high as they could,
they marched three times, round the parliament, and then, by St. Boniface,
he was anointed Archbishop of Metz, A.D. 752. Pepin did not forget that he
owed a debt of gratitude to the Pope for the answer he had given to his
question, and when, shortly after, the Pope sent to complain of the
trouble occasioned by the Lombards, Pepin crossed the Alps, punished the
Lombards, took from them all the territory about Rome and gave it to the
Pope "to belong to him and to the bishops of Rome forever. That was the
beginning of the Papal sovereignty. The States of the Church, as they were
called, remained under the sovereignty of the Popes until 1871." Pepin le
Bref, King of France, died in 768. He married Bertha (Bertrada) of Laon.
She died in 783. They had two sons as follows:

Noted events in his life were:

1. Fact 1: Mayor Of The Palace. Founded The Carolingian Dynasty.

2. Fact 2: 751-768, Chosen King Of The Franks Over The Last Feeble Merovingian Monarch, Childeric.

3. Fact 3: Boniface, With Papal Blessings, Anointed Him King Of The Franks.

4. Fact 4: This Alliance W/ Pope Conferred Leadership Of Westrn Christiandom On Dynasty.

5. Fact 5: Served As Mayor Of The Palace In The Merovingian Kingdom In France & Germany.

6. Fact 6: Pope Stephen II Asked Him For Help Against The Lombards.

7. Fact 7: Pepin Sent His Army To Save Rome.

8. Fact 8: Lombards Had Captured Ravenna. Pepin Recaptured The City.

9. Fact 9: He Gave Ravenna & Much Of Its Adjacent Territory To The Pope.

10. Fact 10: Known As 'The Donation Of Pepin, ' It Helped Build The Political Power Of Pope.

11. Fact 11: Pepin Added Aquitaine To His Own Kingdom.

12. Fact 12: Began Many Important Religious And Educational Reforms.

13. Fact 13: His Son Charlemagne Carried On These Reforms.

Pepin married Bertrada (Bertha) II "Broadfoot" , Countess De Laon [Queen Of Franks about 740.

Children from this marriage were:

274877907200       i.  Charlemagne "The Great", Emperor Of The Holy Roman Empire King Of Franks King Of France (born on 2 Apr 742-747 Ingelheim, Rheinhessen, Hesse-Darmstadt - died on 28 Jan 814 in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia)
               ii.  Rothaide Of The Franks (born in 744 Of Aachen - died in Austrasia, France)
              iii.  Gisela Of Chelles Abbes ()
               iv.  Adelaide, Princess Of The Franks Of The Franks [Nun] (born about 746 Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia - died in Young)
                v.  Gertrude Of The Franks (born in 748 Of Aachen - died)
               vi.  Carloman King Of Burgundy (born in 751 Of Aachen - died on 4 Dec 771 in Samoucy, Aisne, France)
              vii.  Gilles Of The Franks (born in 755 Of Aachen - died)
             viii.  Pippin Of The Franks (born in 756 Of Aachen - died in 761)
               ix.  Gisele , Princess Of The Franks Abbess Of Chelles [Abbess Of Chelles] (born in 757 Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia - died in 811)
                x.  Ada, Princess Of The Franks Of The Franks (born in 759 Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia - died)

Pepin next married Leuthergis Leuthergis (Concubine), not Married. Leuthergis was born in 715 in Austrasia, France.

Noted events in her life were:

1. Fact 1: A Concubine.


549755814401. Bertrada (Bertha) II "Broadfoot" , Countess De Laon [Queen Of Franks , daughter of Charibert I (Cambert) , Count Of Laon Count Of Laon and Bertrada, Countess Of Laon Princess Of, was born about 720 in Laon, Aisne, France died on 12 Jul 783 in Choisy, Haute-Savoie, France, about age 63, and was buried in St. Denis, Paris, Seine, France. Another name for Bertrada was Berthe (Bertrade) Laon Contess Of.

General Notes: Sometimes thought to be Mother Goose. It is said that she was called "Gross-mere" because she was the mother of Karl der Grosse -- i.e. Charlemagne. The English turned "Gross" into "Goose" and therefore called her "Mother Goose". She reputedly collected children's stories and rhymes and from that comes the "legend" of "Mother Goose."

Noted events in her life were:

1. Fact 1: Buried: St Denis, Paris, Seine, France.

2. Religion. Sources: O'shea/Charlemagne qvc

Bertrada married Pepin (Pippin) III "The Short", King Of The Franks King Of Franks Duke Of Austrasia about 740.


549755814402. Gerold I (Childebrand) Duke Of Swabia [Duke Of Swabia] , son of Gerold Bishop Of Mayence Bishop Of and Unknown, was born in 710 in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia and died after 779.

General Notes: Alt Name: Gerold/Godfray I, Count Of Vinzgau [Duke Of Swabia]

Noted events in his life were:

1. Fact 1: Duke Of Allemania.

2. Fact 2: Count In The Anglachau 779.

Gerold married Duchess Of Swabia Imma Of about 749 in Of, Swabia.

Children from this marriage were:

                i.  Ulrich I Ct De Argengau (died after 808)
               ii.  Irmentrudis Princess Of Swabia (born about 750 Of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia)
274877907201     iii.  Hildegard , Countess Of Vinzgau [Empress] (born in 758 Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia - died on 30 Apr 783 in Thionville, Moselle, France)
               iv.  Ulrich Of Vinzgau (died)
                v.  Hadrian De Allemania Count Of (born about 760 - died on 15 Feb 823-824)
               vi.  Erlafrid Of Vinzgau (died)
              vii.  Hadrian Of Vinzgau (died after 815)


549755814403. Duchess Of Swabia Imma Of , daughter of Nebi/Hnabi , Duke Of Allemania Duke Of and Unknown, was born about 730 in Of, Swabia (Germany) and died in 798, about age 68. Another name for Duchess was Imma Swabia Of.

General Notes: Alt Name: Imma De Allemania
Alt Birth: 736 Aachen
Alt Death: 789

Duchess married Gerold I (Childebrand) Duke Of Swabia [Duke Of Swabia] about 749 in Of, Swabia.


549755814405. Gisele , Princess Of The Franks Abbess Of Chelles [Abbess Of Chelles] , daughter of Pepin (Pippin) III "The Short", King Of The Franks King Of Franks Duke Of Austrasia and Bertrada (Bertha) II "Broadfoot" , Countess De Laon [Queen Of Franks, was born in 757 in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia and died in 811, at age 54.

Gisele married (name unknown).

Children from this marriage were:

274877907202       i.  Rowland ()


549755816640. Charlemagne "The Great", Emperor Of The Holy Roman Empire King Of Franks King Of France , son of Pepin (Pippin) III "The Short", King Of The Franks King Of Franks Duke Of Austrasia and Bertrada (Bertha) II "Broadfoot" , Countess De Laon [Queen Of Franks, was born on 2 Apr 742-747 in Ingelheim, Rheinhessen, Hesse-Darmstadt, was christened in St. Denis, Paris, Seine, France died on 28 Jan 814 in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia, at age 71, and was buried on 5 Feb 814 in Aachen Cathedral, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. Other names for Charlemagne were Emperor Of The Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne, Emperor Of The West Charlemagne King Of Franks, and Charlemagne Holy Roman Emp.

General Notes: King of the Franks 768-814; Holy Roman Emperor 800-814. He was joint king with his brother Carloman. Charlemagne = Carolus Magnus, in Latin = Charles the Great. He led his Frankish armies to victory over numerous other peoples and established his rule in most of western and central Europe. He was the best-known and most influential king in Europe in the Middle Ages.

He is described as being big and robust in frame, nearly 7 feet tall, with large and lustrous eyes, with a rather long nose, and with a ruddy and cheerful countenance. He had a commanding presence, a clear but somewhat feeble voice, and grew rather stout. His health was uniformly good, owing perhaps to his moderation in eating and drinking and to his fondness for hunting and swimming. Though givven to immorality in his private life, he was a regular observer of religious rites and took deep interest in the missons and schools of the Church. Though unable to write, he knew German and learned to read Latin. (Ancient and Medieval History, by Carlton Hayes and Parker Moon; 1929)

When his father, Pepin, was crowned by Pope Stephen in 754, the pope also anointed both Charlemagne and his brother Carloman. Charlemagne accompanied his father on most of his military expeditions. When his father died in 768, Charlemagne sought an alliance with the Lombards by marrying the daughter of the king. When his brother died suddenly in 771, Charlemagne seized his territories, but Carloman's heirs took refuge at the court of Desiderius (Charlemagne's father-in-law). By that time Charlemagne had repudiated his wife, and Desiderius was no longer friendly. In 772, when Pope Adrian I appealed to Charlemagne for help against Desiderius, the Frankish king invaded Italy, deposed his erstwhile father-in-law (774), and himself assumed the royal title. He then journeyed to Rome and reaffirmed his father's promise to protect papal lands. As early as 772 Charlemagne had fought onslaughts of the heathen Saxons on his lands. Buoyed by his Italian success, he now (774) embarked on a campaign to conquer and Christianize them. That campaign had some initial success but was to drag on for 30 years, in which time he conducted many other campaigns as well. He fought in Spain in 778; on the return trip his rear guard, led by Roland, was ambushed, a story immortalized in "The Song of Roland". In 788 he subjected the Bavarians to his rule, and between 791 and 796 Charlemagne's armies conquered the empire of the Avars (corresponding roughly to modern Hungary and Austria).
Charlemagne had thus built an empire and become an emperor. On Christmas Day, in 800, Charlemagne knelt to pray in St.Peter's Basilica in Rome. Pope Leo III then placed a crown upon his head, and the people assembled in the church acclaimed him the great, pacific emperor of the Romans. In 813 he designated his sole surviving son, Louis, as his successor, and personally crowned him. (Internet)

Charlemagne established a more permanent royal capital than had any of his predecessors. His favorite residence from 794 on was at Aix-la-Chapelle. He had a church and a palace constructed there, based in part on architectural borrowings from Ravenna and Rome. At his court he gathered scholars from all over Europe, the most famous being the English cleric Alcuin of York, whom he placed in charge of the palace school. (Internet)

He was a tireless patron of learning. He loved to read histories and study astronomy and question travellers about geography. He caused Frankish legends to be collected and put in poetical form. Under Charlemagne's guidance, Alcuin organized a "school of the palace," where the royal children were taught together with others, and likewise he founded at Tours a school which became the model for many other educational institutions throughout the Empire. (Ancient and Medieval History, by Carlton Hayes and Parker Moon; 1929)

He founded bishoprics and monasteries, was lavish in his gifts to ecclesiastical foundations, took an active part in the deliberations of church synods, and favored bishops and abbots who possessed personal piety, learning, and administrative ability. (Ancient and Medieval History, by Carlton Hayes and Parker Moon; 1929)

Administration of the empire was entrusted to some 250 royal administrators called counts. Charlemagne issued hundreds of decrees, called capitularies, dealing with a broad range of topics from judicial and military matters to monasteries, education, and the management of royal estates.
The empire did not expand after 800; already in the 790's the seacoasts and river valleys experienced the first, dreaded visits of the Vikings.
Charlemagne ordered a special watch against them in every harbor, but with little effect. He died before their full, destructive force was unleashed on the empire.
Charlemagne is important not only for the number of his victories and the size of his empire, but for the special blend of tradition and innovation that he represented. On the one hand, he was a traditional Germanic warrior, who spent most of his adult life fighting. In the Saxon campaigns he imposed baptism by the sword, and he retaliated against rebels with merciless slaughter. On the other hand, he placed his immense power and prestige at the service of Christian doctrine, the monastic life, the teaching of Latin, the copying of books, and the rule of law. His life, held up as a model to most later kings, thus embodied the fusion of Germanic, Roman, and Christian cultures that became the basis of European civilization. (Internet)

In the early part of his reign, invaded Northern Italy, putting an end to the Lombard kingdom. From 774 to 799 he was at war with the Saxons, at that time a heathen race east of the Rhine. In 785, Widukind, Saxon leader, submitted and was baptized a Christian, but resistance continued in the outlying portions of the region. Bavaria was next annexed and this brought Charlemagne in conflict with the Avars whose Khan became a Christian in 805. Expeditions were also sent against the Arabs of North Spain. In 800, while in Rome, Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day, thus reviving the Roman Empire. After a naval war in the Adriatic, in which he surrendered some disputed territory, Charlemagne was saluted by the Greek envoys as Basileus, the equality of the two empires being thus recognized. The reign of Charlemagne witnessed a revival of arts and letters, a revision of Frankish law and the writing of the laws of Saxons, Thuringians, and Frisians.

The town of Hamburg was founded by Charlemagne in 808. (Life of Anskar; from the Internet)

The monastery of New Corbey (sometimes called Corvey), had been planned by Charlemagne, and after his death was built at the instigation of his successor Ludwig in the Sollinger Wald. Adelhard was its first abbot. The original building was injured by an earthquake in 819, and in 821 the site was moved to the right bank of the River Weser, in Westphalia, and was refounded here on August 25th, 822. (Life of Ansker; from the Internet)

A real family man, Charlie kept his daughters close at hand, refusing to let them marry or enter a nunnery. Being from the Frankish cultural tradition, however, dad had a relaxed attitude about sexual activities. His daughter, Bertha, and her sisters were allowed to have love affairs, even with men of lower social standing. Dad's rules: Keep it under my roof but out of my sight. (Uppity Women of Medieval Times, by Vicki Leon, 1997)

Petty principalities developed in Bretagne. These principalities became subject to Charlemagne early in the 9th century, but in 846, under a leader, Nomenöe, who had united the country against invaders, the Bretons revolted against Charlemagne's grandson, Charles the Bald, and won independence. (Encarta Encyclopedia, CD-rom)


His name in Latin is Carolus Magnus (Charles the Great), who led his Frankish armies to victory over numerous other peoples and established his rule in most of western and central Europe. He was the best-known and most influential king in Europe in the Middle Ages. Early Years In 751 Pepin the Short dethroned the last Merovingian king and assumed the royal title himself. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II in 754. Besides anointing Pepin, Pope Stephen anointed both Charlemagne and his younger brother Carloman. Within the year Pepin invaded Italy to protect the pope against the Lombards, and in 756 he again had to rush to the pope's aid. From 760 on, Pepin's main military efforts went into the conquest of Aquitaine, the lands south of the Loire River. Charlemagne accompanied his father on most of these expeditions. Campaigns When Pepin died in 768, the rule of his realms was to be shared between his two sons. Charlemagne sought an alliance with the Lombards by marrying the daughter of their king, Desiderius (reigned 757-74). In 771 Carloman died suddenly. Charlemagne then seized his territories, but Carloman's heirs took refuge at the court of Desiderius. By that time Charlemagne had repudiated his wife, and Desiderius was no longer friendly. In 772, when Pope Adrian I appealed to Charlemagne for help against Desiderius, the Frankish king invaded Italy, deposed his erstwhile father-in-law (774), and himself assumed the royal title. He then journeyed to Rome and reaffirmed his father's promise to protect papal lands. As early as 772 Charlemagne had fought onslaughts of the heathen Saxons on his lands. Buoyed by his Italian success, he now (775) embarked on a campaign to conquer and Christianize them. That campaign had some initial success but was to drag on for 30 years, in which time he conducted many other campaigns as well. He fought in Spain in 778; on the return trip his rear guard, led by Roland, was ambushed, a story immortalized in The Song of Roland. In 788 he subjected the Bavarians to his rule, and between 791 and 796 Charlemagne's armies conquered the empire of the Avars (corresponding roughly to modern Hungary and Austria). Coronation Having thus established Frankish rule over so many other peoples, Charlemagne had in fact built an empire and become an emperor. It remained only for him to add the title. On Christmas Day, in 800, Charlemagne knelt to pray in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. Pope Leo III then placed a crown upon his head, and the people assembled in the church acclaimed him the great, pacific emperor of the Romans. Charlemagne's biographer, Einhard, reported that the king was surprised by this coronation and that had he known it was going to happen, he would not have gone into the church that day. This report has led to much speculation by historians. Charlemagne probably desired and expected to get the imperial title and he subsequently used it. In 813 he designated his sole surviving son, Louis, as his successor, and personally crowned him. Administration Charlemagne established a more permanent royal capital than had any of his predecessors. His favorite residence from 794 on was at Aix-la-Chapelle. He had a church and a palace constructed there, based in part on architectural borrowings from Ravenna and Rome. At his court he gathered scholars from all over Europe, the most famous being the English cleric Alcuin of York, whom he placed in charge of the palace school. Administration of the empire was entrusted to some 250 royal administrators called counts. Charlemagne issued hundreds of decrees, called capitularies, dealing with a broad range of topics from judicial and military matters to monasteries, education, and the management of royal estates. The empire did not expand after 800; indeed, already in the 790s the seacoasts and river valleys experienced the first, dreaded visits of the Vikings. Charlemagne ordered a special watch against them in every harbor, but with little effect. He died before their full, destructive force was unleashed on the empire. Evaluation Charlemagne is important not only for the number of his victories and the size of his empire, but for the special blend of tradition and innovation that he represented. On the one hand, he was a traditional Germanic warrior, who spent most of his adult life fighting. In the Saxon campaigns he imposed baptism by the sword, and he retaliated against rebels with merciless slaughter. On the other hand, he placed his immense power and prestige at the service of Christian doctrine, the monastic life, the teaching of Latin, the copying of books, and the rule of law. His life, held up as a model to most later kings, thus embodied the fusion of Germanic, Roman, and Christian cultures that became the basis of European civilization. Merged General Note: His name in Latin is Carolus Magnus (Charles the Great), who led his Frankish armies to victory over numerous other peoples and established his rule in most of western and central Europe. He was the best-known and most influential king in Europe in the Middle Ages. Early Years In 751 Pepin the Short dethroned the last Merovingian king and assumed the royal title himself. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II in 754. Besides anointing Pepin, Pope Stephen anointed both Charlemagne and his younger brother Carloman. Within the year Pepin invaded Italy to protect the pope against the Lombards, and in 756 he again had to rush to the pope's aid. From 760 on, Pepin's main military efforts went into the conquest of Aquitaine, the lands south of the Loire River. Charlemagne accompanied his father on most of these expeditions. Campaigns When Pepin died in 768, the rule of his realms was to be shared between his two sons. Charlemagne sought an alliance with the Lombards by marrying the daughter of their king, Desiderius (reigned 757-74). In 771 Carloman died suddenly. Charlemagne then seized his territories, but Carloman's heirs took refuge at the court of Desiderius. By that time Charlemagne had repudiated his wife, and Desiderius was no longer friendly. In 772, when Pope Adrian I appealed to Charlemagne for help against Desiderius, the Frankish king invaded Italy, deposed his erstwhile father-in-law (774), and himself assumed the royal title. He then journeyed to Rome and reaffirmed his father's promise to protect papal lands. As early as 772 Charlemagne had fought onslaughts of the heathen Saxons on his lands. Buoyed by his Italian success, he now (775) embarked on a campaign to conquer and Christianize them. That campaign had some initial success but was to drag on for 30 years, in which time he conducted many other campaigns as well. He fought in Spain in 778; on the return trip his rear guard, led by Roland, was ambushed, a story immortalized in The Song of Roland. In 788 he subjected the Bavarians to his rule, and between 791 and 796 Charlemagne's armies conquered the empire of the Avars (corresponding roughly to modern Hungary and Austria). Coronation Having thus established Frankish rule over so many other peoples, Charlemagne had in fact built an empire and become an emperor. It remained only for him to add the title. On Christmas Day, in 800, Charlemagne knelt to pray in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. Pope Leo III then placed a crown upon his head, and the people assembled in the church acclaimed him the great, pacific emperor of the Romans. Charlemagne's biographer, Einhard, reported that the king was surprised by this coronation and that had he known it was going to happen, he would not have gone into the church that day. This report has led to much speculation by historians. Charlemagne probably desired and expected to get the imperial title and he subsequently used it. In 813 he designated his sole surviving son, Louis, as his successor, and personally crowned him. Administration Charlemagne established a more permanent royal capital than had any of his predecessors. His favorite residence from 794 on was at Aix-la-Chapelle. He had a church and a palace constructed there, based in part on architectural borrowings from Ravenna and Rome. At his court he gathered scholars from all over Europe, the most famous being the English cleric Alcuin of York, whom he placed in charge of the palace school. Administration of the empire was entrusted to some 250 royal administrators called counts. Charlemagne issued hundreds of decrees, called capitularies, dealing with a broad range of topics from judicial and military matters to monasteries, education, and the management of royal estates. The empire did not expand after 800; indeed, already in the 790s the seacoasts and river valleys experienced the first, dreaded visits of the Vikings. Charlemagne ordered a special watch against them in every harbor, but with little effect. He died before their full, destructive force was unleashed on the empire. Evaluation Charlemagne is important not only for the number of his victories and the size of his empire, but for the special blend of tradition and innovation that he represented. On the one hand, he was a traditional Germanic warrior, who spent most of his adult life fighting. In the Saxon campaigns he imposed baptism by the sword, and he retaliated against rebels with merciless slaughter. On the other hand, he placed his immense power and prestige at the service of Christian doctrine, the monastic life, the teaching of Latin, the copying of books, and the rule of law. His life, held up as a model to most later kings, thus embodied the fusion of Germanic, Roman, and Christian cultures that became the basis of European civilization.

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Subject: Re: ANCESTRY OF COUNT ROBERT "THE STRONG"
From: Matman <mat_man@hotmail.com>
Date: Thu, 08 May 1997 16:08:56 +0100

William Addams Reitwiesner wrote:
>
> >>Then you'll love Joseph et Martine Denoyelle-Lelong, *Les origines franco-saxonnes des Capetiens* [Lille, 1994], where Robert the Strong's patrilineal line is traced back to Brimir Aurgelmer (born 275 BC) through Odin (born 180 BC in Tartarie, and conquered Northern Europe), and Wotan
(born 305/310 AD, King of the Saxons). Others sharing this patrilineal line are the Kings of Kent and Essex, the Billungers, the Saxon Emperors (such as Henry, d. 936), and the Counts of Waldeck. The authors are honest enough to mark each of the speculative connections with a "?" -- guess how many connections in the book do *not* have the question mark! By the way, the front cover has portraits of Robert the Strong, his dad Witichin, grand dad Rotbert, and great-granddad Amalwin. Kinda generic looking, clean- shaven except for their mustaches. > >>
> William Addams Reitwiesner
> wrei@erols.com
>
> "Sic gorgiamus allos subjectatos nunc."

Sounds a bit like a 'Grail book'. I once came across a similar French
study which traced Charlemagne's ancestry back to a Roman prefect
of Gaul called Tonantius Ferreolus in the 5th century, from him
back via various Roman families to Juba II king of Mauretania
in the 1st century AD, who had married a daughter of Cleopatra VII,
(this is from from memory) back through the rest of the Ptolemies,
to a line of hereditary high-priests, and from them back to the
pharaohs. But the links between the various families were all
conjectural (i.e imagined). I wish I could remember the authors,
since I'm sure it would find a following.

Matt
1. Charles, also known as Karl der Grosse, King of the Lombards and King of France (774- January 28, 814), Charles the Great, Charles I (ca 747 - 814), and Emperor of the West (ca 800 - 814).
28. Charlemagne, Charles the Great. With the consent of the great nobles,
Charlemagne, Charles the Great, became King of France and Holy Roman
Emperor of the West from 771 to 814, following the death of his brother.
He was born April 2, 742, probably at Aix-La-Chapelle. When only twelve
years old we find him commissioned to receive and welcome the pontiff who
came to implore his father's aid against the barbarians that threatened
Rome. He probably accompanied his father in his campaigns at an early age,
but the first time that we really see him in the field, is on the renewal
of the war with the rebellious Duke of Aquitaine.

Upon the death of Pepin, in 768, Charlemagne and his younger brother
Carloman succeeded to equal portions of one of the most powerful of
European kingdoms, bounded by the Pyrenees, the Alps, Mediterranean, and
the ocean. But this would hardly enabled the monarchs, even had they been
united, to resist successfully the incursions of the barbarous tribes on
the German frontiers of France, which had commenced with the first
establishment of the Frankish dominion in Gaul; and which were kept alive
by the constant pouring forth of fresh hordes from the overpopulated
north. The situation of Charlemagne was rendered yet more perilous by the
massive enmity of his brother, and the rebellion of Hunald, the turbulent
Duke of Aquitaine. But fortunately Charlemagne had a genius equal to the
difficulties of his situation; though his brother refused to aid him, he
defeated Huald; and no less illustrious by his clemency than by his valor
and military skill, he forgave the vanquished rebel.


Desiderius, the King of Lombardy, had made large encroachments upon the
states of the Roman Pontiff, whose cause was taken up by Charlemagne. This
led to feuds, which Bertha, his mother, endeavored to appease by arranging
a marriage between her son and the daughter of the Lombard. But
Charlemagne soon took a disgust to the wife thus imposed upon him, and
repudiated her, that he might marry Hildegarde, the daughter of a noble
family in Swabia. Thus he married Hildegarde of Swabia (Linzgau),
Countess, born in 757/758, died April 30, 782/3.


In 771 Carloman died, and Charlemagne was elected to the vacant throne, to
the exclusion of his nephews, whose extreme youth made then incapable of
wearing the crown in such troubled times. Gilberge, the widow of Carloman,
immediately fled, and sought refuse with Desiderius, the common retreat
for all who were hostile to the Frankish monarch.


From that time, sole ruler during a reign of forty-three years, he waged
incessant wars on all his borders, subduing rebellions, extending his
domains and at the same time advancing Christianity. In 772 he began a
thirty-year war with the determined Saxons, after the successful opening
of Charlemagne was called to the assistance of Pope Hadrian I. against
Desiderius, King of the Lombards. Charlemagne marched two armies over the
Alps and conquered Lombardy in 774; returned and beat the Saxons again and
hastened into Spain, in 778, to help the Arabian rulers of that country
against the Osman Caliph of Cordova. It was in this war that Roland, the
hero of romance, fell in the pass of Roncesvalles.


In 799 the Romans revolted against Pope Leo III., and were again brought
into subjection by Charlemagne. In return, while he was praying on the
steps of St. Peter's Church, he was crowned by Leo with the iron crown of
the Western Empire, successor of the Roman Caesars, unexpectedly to him,
as he pretended, on Christmas Day, 800, amidst the popular acclamations,
"Long life and victory to Charles Augustus, crowned by God, great and
pacific Emperor of the Romans!"


The extensive domain of Charlemagne was rendered secure only by ceaseless
vigilance and warfare. The short intervals of peace which ere allowed him,
he employed in endeavoring to educate and civilize his people. He made a
tour through his dominions, causing local and general improvement,
reforming laws, advancing knowledge, and building churches and
monasteries. Christianity being one of the chief means to which he trusted
for the attainment of his grand objects. In this he was no less successful
than he had before been in war. With exception of the Eastern empire,
France was now the most cultivated nation in Europe, even Rome herself
sending thither for skillful workmen, while commerce, roads, and mechanics
must have been much advanced, as we may infer from the facility with which
marble columns and immense stone crosses were often carried through the
whole extent of France upon carriages of native construction. Luxury, too,
with its attendant arts had made considerable strides. Vases of gold and
silver richly carved, silver tables highly wrought, bracelets, rings, and
table cloths of fine linen, might be seen in the houses of the nobles. The
people must have been dexterous in working iron, for their superiority in
this respect is shown by the severe laws forbidding the exportation of
arms.


Charlemagne drove back the Arabs, reduced the Huns, and effectually
protected his long line of coast from the attempted invasion of the
Northmen. It is said, that upon one occasion he arrived at a certain port
just as the pirates were preparing to land; but the moment they learned of
the presence of the monarch, they immediately fled in great terror at the
mere mention of his name.


It was always an object of first importance with Charlemagne to support
the papal authority, as holding out the only means of spreading
Christianity, which he justly considered the most effectual instrument he
could employ to enlighten and civilize the world.


Charlemagne securely laid the foundations of his empire. He was vigilant,
judicious, and energetic, both as a ruler and commander. He fostered
agriculture, trade, arts, and letters with untiring zeal, clearing
forests, draining swamps, founding monasteries and schools, building
cities, constructing splendid palaces, as at Aix, Worms, and Ingelheim,
and drawing to his court scholars and poets from all nations, being
himself proficient in science, as well as all hardy accomplishments.


Charlemagne was tall and a commanding presence, and could speak and write
Latin as well as his native German. He fostered all learning and the fine
arts, studying rhetoric and astronomy. He reigned over France, half of
Germany, and four-fifths of Italy. The Caliph Haroun-al-Rashid sent an
embassy to the court of Charlemagne with gifts in token of good will.


Attacked with pleurisy he died after a short illness, in the
seventy-second year of age, and the forty-seventh of his reign, on January
28, 814. Some years later Charlemagne was canonized by the church.

Noted events in his life were:

1. Fact 1: King Of France 768-814. "Emperor Of The West". Holy Roman Emperor 25 Dec 800.

2. Religion. William Addams Reitwiesnerwrei@erols.com

3. Fact 2: King Of The Lombards 774. 'Emperor Of The Romans' From 800 To 814.

4. Fact 3: First Germanic Ruler To Assume The Title Of Emperor.

5. Fact 4: Created A Vast Empire In The West The Western Part Of Ancient Roman Empire + New.

6. Fact 5: The 'Empire' He Revived Lasted In One Form Or Another For A Thousand Years.

7. Fact 6: From 768 To 771, Charlemagne Shared Kingdom With His Brother, Carloman.

8. Fact 7: Gained Wide Acclaim For His Military Success; Waged Over 50 Campaigns.

9. Fact 8: Subjugated Neigboring Germans, & Waged War Vs. Avars, Slavs, Byzantines, & Moors.

10. Fact 9: Aided The Pope By Defeating Lombards & Becoming Their King.

11. Fact 10: Defeated Pagan Saxons After 30 Years Of War.

12. Fact 11: Founded The Holy Roman Empire; Crowned By Pope Leo III In 800.

13. Fact 12: Controlled Power Of Nobles & Extended Law Over A Troubled Domain.

14. Fact 13: Patron Of Culture And Extender Of Civilization.

Charlemagne married Himiltrud Of The Holy Roman Empire Empress, about 764. Himiltrud was born about 742 of Aachen and died. Another name for Himiltrud was Himiltrud Holy Roman Empire Empress.

Charlemagne next married Regina (Reginopycrha), not Married. Regina was born about 770 in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia.

Charlemagne next married Hildegard , Countess Of Vinzgau [Empress] about 771 in Aix-La-Chappelle, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia.

Charlemagne next married Galiena (De France), not Married. Galiena was born in 780 of Aachen.

Charlemagne next married Desideria (De France) Daughter Of King Of The Lombards, in 770. Desideria was born in 755 in Lombardy, Italy and died on an unknown date.

Charlemagne next married Fastrada (De France) [Countess Of France], daughter of Radulf Ct Radulf and Unknown, in 783 in , Worms. Fastrada (De France) [Countess Of France] died in 794.

Charlemagne next married Madelgard (De France), about 788. Madelgard was born in 766 of Aachen.

Charlemagne next married Gersvind (De France), about 790. Gersvind was born in 768 of Old Saxony.

Charlemagne next married Regina (De France), about 792. Regina was born in 770 of Aachen.

Charlemagne next married Luitgard (De France) [Queen Of France, in 794-796. Luitgard was born in 774 in Allemania, Germany and died on 4 Jun 800 in Tours, Indre-Et-Loire, France, at age 26.

Noted events in her life were:

1. Fact 1: Buried: St. Martin, Meurthe-Et-Moselle, France.

Charlemagne next married Adelheid (Adelinde) (De France), about 805. Adelheid was born in 785 of Aachen.

Noted events in her life were:

1. Fact 1: Concubine.

Charlemagne next married Hildegard , Countess Of Vinzgau [Empress] about 800.

Charlemagne next married (name unknown) about 800.

Charlemagne next married (name unknown) about 802.

Charlemagne next married (name unknown) about 804.

Charlemagne next married Mathalgard (Hathalgard), not Married.

Charlemagne next married Adelheid/Adelinde, not Married. Adelheid/Adelinde died.


549755816641. Hildegard , Countess Of Vinzgau [Empress] , daughter of Gerold I (Childebrand) Duke Of Swabia [Duke Of Swabia] and Duchess Of Swabia Imma Of, was born in 758 in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia died on 30 Apr 783 in Thionville, Moselle, France, at age 25, and was buried in St. Arnoul Abbey, Metz, Metz, France. Another name for Hildegard was Hildegarde Holy Roman Empire.

General Notes: Alt Name: Hildegard Princess Of Swabia

Hildegard married Charlemagne "The Great", Emperor Of The Holy Roman Empire King Of Franks King Of France about 771 in Aix-La-Chappelle, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia.

Hildegard next married Charlemagne "The Great", Emperor Of The Holy Roman Empire King Of Franks King Of France about 800.

Noted events in his life were:

1. Fact 1: King Of France 768-814. "Emperor Of The West". Holy Roman Emperor 25 Dec 800.

2. Religion. William Addams Reitwiesnerwrei@erols.com

3. Fact 2: King Of The Lombards 774. 'Emperor Of The Romans' From 800 To 814.

4. Fact 3: First Germanic Ruler To Assume The Title Of Emperor.

5. Fact 4: Created A Vast Empire In The West The Western Part Of Ancient Roman Empire + New.

6. Fact 5: The 'Empire' He Revived Lasted In One Form Or Another For A Thousand Years.

7. Fact 6: From 768 To 771, Charlemagne Shared Kingdom With His Brother, Carloman.

8. Fact 7: Gained Wide Acclaim For His Military Success; Waged Over 50 Campaigns.

9. Fact 8: Subjugated Neigboring Germans, & Waged War Vs. Avars, Slavs, Byzantines, & Moors.

10. Fact 9: Aided The Pope By Defeating Lombards & Becoming Their King.

11. Fact 10: Defeated Pagan Saxons After 30 Years Of War.

12. Fact 11: Founded The Holy Roman Empire; Crowned By Pope Leo III In 800.

13. Fact 12: Controlled Power Of Nobles & Extended Law Over A Troubled Domain.

14. Fact 13: Patron Of Culture And Extender Of Civilization.


549755816642. William , Count Of Toulouse , son of Carloman Prince Of Franks Mayor Of The Palace and Miss, was born about 745 in Toulouse, France and died.

William married Miss.

Children from this marriage were:

274877908321       i.  Bertha , Queen Of Italy (born about 777 Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, France - died)


549755816643. Miss , was born about 758 in Prussia and died.

Miss married William , Count Of Toulouse.


549755817344. Ivar I Oplaendinge Halfdansson Halfdansson [Earl Of The Uplands] , son of Halfdan "The Aged" Sveidasson and Mrs-Halfdan Sveidasson, was born about 787 in Oppland, Norway and died in 824 in Oppland, Norway, about age 37.

General Notes: Alt Birth: Abt 770 Oppland, Norway

Ivar married Miss Eysteinsdatter Eysteinsdatter about 824 in Of, , Oppland, Norway.

Children from this marriage were:

274877908672       i.  Eystein "Glumra" Ivarsson [Earl Of The Uplands] (born about 800 Of, Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway - died est 834-901)


549755817345. Miss Eysteinsdatter Eysteinsdatter , daughter of Eystein "Glumra" Hognasson and Miss, was born about 785 in Of, Trondheim, S2r-Tr2ndelag, Norway and died.

Miss married Ivar I Oplaendinge Halfdansson Halfdansson [Earl Of The Uplands] about 824 in Of, , Oppland, Norway.


549755817346. Rognvald Olafsson , son of Olaf Gudrodsson Gudrodsson [King Of Jutland & Vestfold] and Miss Unknown, was born about 816 in Of, , Vestfold, Norway and died in 850 in Maer, Nord, Trondelag, Norway, about age 34.

Rognvald married Mrs-Rognvald Olafsson, about 833 in Of, Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. Mrs-Rognvald was born about 814 in Of, , Jutland, Denmark.

Children from this marriage were:

274877908673       i.  Ascrida (Aseda) Rognvaldsdatter Countess Of Oppland [Countess Of Oppland] (born about 804 Of, Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway - died)

Rognvald next married Thora Sigurdsdottir in Of, Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway.

Children from this marriage were:

274877908673       i.  Ascrida (Aseda) Rognvaldsdatter Countess Of Oppland [Countess Of Oppland] (born about 804 Of, Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway - died)

Rognvald next married Tora Sigurdsdottir, daughter of Sigurd "Snake Eye" Ragnarsson and Heluna (Bleja) England Princess Of England.


549755817347. Thora Sigurdsdottir , daughter of Sigurd "Snake-In-Eye" Ragnarsson II [King Of Denmark] and Heluna (Bleja) , Princess Of England, was born about 806 in Jutland, Denmark and died.

Thora married Rognvald Olafsson in Of, Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway.

Thora next married Helgi Olafsson, son of Olaf Gudrodsson Gudrodsson [King Of Jutland & Vestfold] and Miss Unknown, about 819 in Of, , , Ireland. Helgi was born of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland and died.

Children from this marriage were:

                i.  Ingjald "The White" Helgasson [King Of Ireland] (born about 820 Dublin, Dublin, Ireland - died)


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